Think Beyond White LED Grow Lights [Kelvin and Color Temperature]

Source: Medium.com (https://medium.com/@Dropality/matching-lights-color-temperature-to-your-home-8ee80cc79474)

 

Have you heard about “Color Temperature” and which is right for each stage of plant growth?

Trying to find the best grow light and wondering on the spectrum?

Cool White or Warm White? How about Neutral White?

All white light sources are categorized by how something appears to your eye. You may have seen Kelvin (K) or Color Temperature (CCT)  before:

  • Cool White (6500K, 6000K, 5000K) looks more “blue” and “green” to your eye
  • Warm White (4000K, 3000K, 2700K, 2000K) looks more “yellow” and “orange” to your eye.

Have you wondered how lights designed for eyes could somehow work the best for plants?

Do plants really need blue light for vegetative growth and red (warm) light for flowering growth?

In this article you’re going to learn how to think beyond color temperature for plants.

You’ll learn how White LEDs and Grow Lights have been originally designed for eyes and how you can interpret this information.

Ready?

Let’s dive in…  

 

Color Temperature (Kelvin) Means Almost Nothing For Plants

I must be crazy, right? Consider this, your eye can mostly pick up green and yellow, that’s it.

Your eyes can pick up green and yellow easily, but red and blue color is hard to see.  Source: https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/technical-articles/understanding-illuminance-whats-in-a-lux/

Here’s the thing…

White LED manufacturers make the LED chips so that they can “score” the highest lumen rating (the light your eyes can see).

Green and yellow are “boosted” to get the maximum lumen brightness.

Higher lumen rating = More Sales

This means that “Color Temperature” is actually the most sensitive in the Green and Yellow regions.

What’s more is that white LEDs are specifically designed to reduce the colors plants want most for growth – red and infrared light.

Since your eye can’t see them very well, the LED’s spectrum is designed to leave those colors out.

This means that Blue and Red can change significantly, but your eye can barely pick up the difference.

Take this for an example…

An LED vs CFL bulb might look similar to your eye, but will grow your plants drastically differently. — All because of how different red and blue is.

See how both CFL and LED Lights might look similar to the human eye, but the red and blue regions are drastically different, meaning different results with plant growth.  

 

Cool & Warm CFL

   

 

  Cool & Warm LED

 

Look at how much “variance” there is outside yellow and green…

Heck, two 3000K LEDs from two manufacturers actually throw off different spectrums!  

    

I hope you can see by now, that color temperature really tells us nothing about how plants will respond to them.

A 5000K Florescent will grow differently than a 5000K LED…

Not only that, but two LEDs of the same color temperature from different manufacturers could also grow differently!  

 

The “Cool White/Blue is for Veg” and the “Warm White/Red is for Flower” Myth

Ask any grower, and they’ll tell you blue is for veg and red is for flower.

Do you know why?

Do they know why?

It’s just what we’ve been told….

Where did this myth come from?

 

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium-vapor_lamp

“HPS” bulbs were meant for street lamps, and they turn out to be great for flowering, but lack the proper amount of blue light to keep plants compact.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal-halide_lamp

“Metal Halide” bulbs were also meant for street lamps, and they turn out to be better for veg, since they contain more blue than an HPS, but HPS is more efficient and has more “oomph” in flower.

HPS vs Metal Halide: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~wakefiel/cs4710/

Since neither is perfectly balanced for all stages of growth, we’re in the mantra of “switching” the spectrum from veg to flower.

How far have grow light manufacturers taken this myth?

Look at the LED lights on Amazon, they all have “veg” modes ranging from an extreme neon blue to a cool white.

Each “veg” and “flower” spectrum is so different, plants will grow differently from light to light depending on the ratio of red, green, and blue light.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grow_light

What might pique your curiosity is that too much blue will actually stunt plant growth.

What?

Yep.

Read 7 Myths Grow Light Companies Tell You to see more about that.

Many growers actually prefer “warm white” LEDs in veg. The reason for this, is that at the “warm white” color temperature, the “ratio” of wavelengths is ideal for plants.

3000K/4000K (warm) LED spectrums happen to have an ideal amount of blue light, and a good amount of yellow light for growth power.

Even though red and infrared are mostly left out, it’s a decent growth spectrum.

Go any lower to 1000K, and the blue light will drop below what is good for plants.

Go higher than 5000K, and so much red light is left out from the spectrum your plants will grow slowly and without much vigor.

This is the reason why “blue” colored spectrums are not ideal for flower, they lack growth power wavelengths (red/IR).

So, do plants really need blue for the vegetative stage of growth after all?

Yes, plants require some amount of blue light so they don’t “stretch” and search for light. 

Plants can sense the % ratio of blue light they receive to determine how to grow.

But at the end of the day, plants will “veg” and “flower” under any kind of light.  They don’t “need” blue for veg and they don’t “need” red for flower, heck, they’ll even grow under a completely green light source from start to finish!

Plants are resilient like that, they deal with what comes to them.

We can help them out and provide them with a better spectrum than what we’ve been limited to with the “neon blue and red” LEDs with narrow band technology, or the “cool/warm white” LEDs that are designed to be brightest to the human eye.

Growers and grow light manufacturers are just using the technology that is easy to find & readily available to them: LEDs designed for humans to see.

What you should realize is the ratio of colors significantly affects how a plant will grow, down to the speed of growth and shape of the leaves and stems.

A well-designed single spectrum with the correct “color characteristics” can work well from seed to flower for all stages of growth.

 

 

Your Eyes Can’t See it, But Plants Can

Plants have been growing for eons under the sun, but we humans haven’t been very good at understanding how light affects plants.

First, many scientists believed that plants “only used” red and blue light.

If you were wondering, it’s only a coincidence that older “narrowband LED” technology makes blue and red colors.

In actuality, blue and red light are the only colors older LED technology can make very well, and this is why you see so many “purple” LEDs out there.

The previous belief about plant science and the emergence of red and blue LED lighting technology have been a “match made in heaven” for the LED manufacturers claiming a “perfect spectrum” since old technology matched an outdated scientific belief.

Then, a study was released by Dr. McCree that tested a plant’s response to one color at a time showing that plants use much more than red and blue light.

He uncovered a discovery that plants use color from 400nm – 700nm.  The term “Photosynthetic Active Radiation” (PAR) was coined.

The McCree Curve as found in – “THE ACTION SPECTRUM, ABSORPTANCE AND QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CROP PLANTS”

Spectrum response of white LED temperatures (source)

As you can see above, White LEDs fall into this 400-700nm range, and don’t create much light outside of it, so they’ll score a very high “PAR” reading or “umol/J” efficiency rating, but keep in mind, efficiency doesn’t grow plants better, the spectrum does.

A 3.0 umol/J grow light may actually grow worse than a 1.8 umol/J grow light if the spectrum is inefficient for plant growth — would you take efficiency over good plant growth?

Generally speaking, the more colors a grow light creates, the less “efficient” it will become, especially when we’re talking about LED.

If you’re wondering why I’m saying this, consider what Dr. Emerson figured out about plant growth and light.

He discovered that two colors could “work together” to create “bonus” photosynthesis and plant growth, including those colors above the accepted “PAR” range from 400-700nm.  

This not only means “PAR” is insufficient to measure how light will help plant growth, but it also tells us that plants care about the reactions between multiple colors at a time, especially those in the Infrared range.

Red, Blue, and Infrared ratios actually are extremely interesting.

When a plant doesn’t receive any Infrared light, it acts differently to color.

You could say that a plant has a natural way of growing (with infrared) and an unnatural way of growing (without infrared).

This is why at the Green Sunshine Company we measure our Electric Sky Wideband Grow Lights in what is known as “Extended Photosynthetic Active Radiation” or EPAR for short which measures the full range of light between 300 and 800 nanometers of light.

We should be measuring the full ability of a grow light to create colors that affect plants.

What you’ll see in the industry next is significant innovation cycle towards spectrum research, and here are some things that you might want to watch out for…

Plants care about a “Ratio” of light

If you can imagine, plants have “minimums” and “maximums” of each color where plant growth will go way out of whack if the spectrum steps out of those bounds.

Guess what?

All White LED spectrums do not take plants into consideration, so blues, greens, yellows, reds, and infrareds can bounce all over the place as they shift from “cool” to “warm”, and can adopt color ratio combinations that are not ideal for plant growth.

Maybe the spectrum will grow way too stretchy, or maybe it will have too much blue which  stresses out the plants and stunts growth, or maybe not enough green and infrared for canopy penetration… you get the idea.

Read our Spectrum Efficiency Showdown article to learn more about how the ratio of colors affect plant growth.  

It’s hard to find the “ratio” by reading a spectrum graph

Reading a spectrum graph is actually quite difficult.

Sure, there will be a curvy line on a graph, and the line will go higher and lower, so you might think that the taller the line, the more light there is of that color. But that isn’t true for plants.

Remember, plants look for a ratio of color within the spectrum.

This means we care about the total area of the colors of blue, green, and red, not just how tall the line goes on the graph.

Interesting right?

 

Different Light Source Spectrumshttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/10/23/near-infrared-led-lighting.aspx

Notice that if the “peak” of one color goes up, it doesn’t always mean that there is the most of that color.

What do you think?

Did you learn something new?

What has your experience been with grow lights labeled by color temperature.

How did they perform?

Comment with your thoughts below!

 

36 thoughts on “Think Beyond White LED Grow Lights [Kelvin and Color Temperature]

  1. Phil Reply

    What’s missing from your argument is how far to synthesis actually works:

    Electromagnetic oscillations [light] excite electrons (in two stages) to such a high level that, using phosphorus (ATP) as a catalyst, Water is Split into hydrogen ions and oxygen ions.
    NOTE: Very similar to how a microwave works by exciting electrons with electromagnetic OSCILLATIONS

    The oxygen is released as O2 and the Hydrogen ions bond with oxygen on CO2 where the Hydrogens electrons have been “pumped” to, producing Glucose and Water
    12H2O +6O2 + Sunlight = C6H12O6 (Glucose) + 6O2 +6H2O

    The net equation is often given for primary studies: 6H2O + 6CO2 +Sunlight =C6H12O6 +6O2

    HIGHER FREQUENCY = Blue carries more energy
    LOWER FREQUENCY = Red penetrates further

    In Nature photo period flowers EG Blue Bells respond to far-red frequencies which penetrate the canopy as the spring leaves develop on the trees above them.

    Trees at the top of the canopy stay compact when they receive high levels of Blue light, an evolutionary response that stops them stretching too far and getting broken in the wind by staying not much higher than the rest of the forest.

    NOT: The trees that have reached the top of the canopy and become sturdy and compact Have Not become stunted.

    Secondly: High EC ( high nutrients) also results in compact plants.

    Growers have to be careful not to put the EC too high too much nutrients because if it is higher than the EC level inside the plant it will “burn” the plants which is when when water is drawn out of the plant.

    If you notice your plants have signs of nitrogen burn on the Leaves the nutrient level is much too high.

    In conclusion plants respond world to a high level of electromagnetic oscillations and a high level of nutrition but be careful not to burn them!

  2. Kees Reply

    Hi Dan, thank you for the great blog posts and taking the time to answer all these individual questions. It has been very helpful. I’m new to growing plants under artificial light and want to start experimenting with cloning and growing philodendrons, (low light tropical plants), with 30w, 3000k SMD-LED-spotlights this winter. They are 2700 lumen, though I understand this value does not say a lot. Do you have any recommendations as to how much lights to use and at what distance to place them from the plants? Thanks.

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Try to start at 3 feet! And see how low you can get while the plants are responding well, adjust a few inches per day.

  3. Gavin Reply

    What would be the most optimal kelvin for everything? Growing peppers and lettuce. Maybe some microgreens?

  4. Tom Reply

    I thank you for a common sense article also I found something that reduces the cost too at Walmart of all places I found T8 / T12 LED bulbs (Tubes) 48″ for $8.88 in a 2 pack (32/40 watt equivalent, G13 base, Soft white (2700k),
    Brightness: 1800 lumens).
    Which mean you can use the inexpensive florescent shop light fixtures. Up until now they were charging around $20 for a conversion set up per tube and they were something like 46 in long. Now Great Value claims they will last up to 44 years (Which I doubt) if they last 5 years that would be great I am still getting my money’s worth out of them. Another thing is I do not need to call out the Hazmat team if I break one. 🙂 Also what I do like about LED as compared to HPS is the amount of power the HPS use I do not need to take out a loan to pay the power bill.
    I see that some people are going 18 Hours on the lighting at the moment I have my timer set for 12 Hours should I extend the time?
    Also I have not seen many article addressing heating and I live in Colorado and the winter a fall night do get chilly any recommendations as I am in the process of converting an old travel trailer into a grow room (on a shoe string).

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      18 hours is great for any vegetative growth since your plants will be getting more light! 🙂

  5. Shaun Reply

    Howzit GreenSunshine,

    A Very nicely constructed and well reasoned argument on a challenging topic.

    What would be your pick in terms of Kelvins if you were growing under Fluorescent?

    Cheers
    Shaun

  6. Mary Reply

    I bought a tropical plant at Costco because it was beautiful and I could not resist. I live in Seattle and I placed it near the window, but It doesn’t seem to get as much sunlight as I’d hoped. I am very concerned about it’s survival. However, I am too cheap to buy grow lights for this. Will it survive if I supplement it’s light with a desk lamp pointed at it and turned on in the evening hours? If so, would a LED 4000k or 3000k spectrum be best? Any advice? Thank you!

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Hi Mary, thanks for the question. I would probably get something a little brighter than a desk lamp, most likely look for one of those spotlight flood bulbs that are designed for the outdoors. Those will have a lens on it that focuses the light which is important if you’re only illuminating one plant. Shoot for 2000K-3000K but a 4000K would be fine. Best of luck!

  7. Manouche Reply

    I’m using 2700K in my 20l nano aquarium. All the plants are happy and they doing great photosynthesis. I used to use 6500k before and there was a lot of algea problem. At the same time the plants were growing very slowly. After 2700k Algae is no longer a problem for the tank and plants are growing quite healthy. Now I’m going to try to mix it with 3500K and 4500K leds together for the “bonus”. Thank you so much for the great information.

  8. Noam Reply

    Thanks for this very informative article!!
    So when looking at the charts and while looking to “fill” the most spectrum area, I was thinking what would be the outcome when having warm and cool at the same time?
    My thoughts are that would give a better coverage, spectrum wise, as each has different peaks.
    Thanks

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Hi Noam, Many LED lights use both warm and cool at the same time for this reason!

  9. Roumen Reply

    One of the best articles I have read on how plants absorb light. And trust me when I say I have read tonnes to try figure out what the best Kelvin is from start to finish. Most people say either 3000K or 4000K so I think I will buy the 3500K and be right smack bang in the middle! What do you think Greensunshine?

  10. Aspiring Greenthumb Reply

    Why do so many growers swear by 6500k lighting for the veg stage and 2500k for the flowering stage?
    You’re saying that if I want maximum yields all I need to do is use 4000k lighting for the entire grow? That certainly makes everything easier.

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Hi there — Yes. I would use 3000K for veg through flower of growth!

  11. Allen Ashby Reply

    Won Dan,
    This info on LED light spectrum was very well done, and very informative on light spectrums,
    I’am so glad I purchased these ES 300
    I can’t wait to get.
    Dan your huge help to all us with our our new ventures in this grow tent industries,
    Cheers,
    Allen

  12. Paul Reply

    It looks like a 3 light system. 1 at 4.5k, 1 at 5.5k, 1 at 6.5k would be the most efficient. I’m curious whether a pulsating light would be better than a steady on light. Any thoughts on this?

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Pulsating would just average out all the spectrums :). 4K is a decent all around spectrum.

  13. Steven McCabe Reply

    Very informative and definitely a completely different way of thinking about lighting than most LED companies will give you. Everything else I’ve read either touts red and blue light with virtually no other colors or warm white for flower and cool white for vegging.

    I think the only mention of ratio I’ve seen is the 5:1 ratio of red to blue that plants supposedly find ideal. Green/ yellow and far red are never mentioned.

  14. Ryan Reply

    I bought the 180 about a month ago. I spent a few months studying spectrums and the emerson effect.and finally decided i would just build my own out of 2, 7 paw adapters and assorted bulbs. Then i happened across your lights. I won’t even get to use it until Illinois comes through but i’m still thrilled with it because i understand it. In the meantime I’m gonna run a 7 paw with 6500k and 2700k bulbs with the covers removed. I love what you built. can’t wait to use it.

  15. Vlad Reply

    This is by far the most comprehensive article I’ve found on this topic. Although it’s best trying things out for yourself and see what happens, I’m scared to try this this year because I’ll have a very late start if I mess up the plants. Any advice on what’s the best solution for growing under normal leds? I have 4000 K ones, should I buy 2 6000 K ones hoping that they’ll average out and have the colours needed to grow?

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Hey Vlad,

      Should be good to go with 4000K all the way for all stages of growth!

      Dan

  16. RLF Reply

    I suggest people try for themselves instead of reading and believing. I was amazed at the seedling differences for the ones under the daylight vs the warm light. They grew healthier under the warmer light. (under 3500K) so there is definitely a difference for seedlings. The ones under the daylight 5K were stunted

    • greensunshine Post authorReply

      Love to hear it RLF — thanks for the comment 🙂

  17. Daniel Reply

    I’m so happy we have smart people like you to figure these things out. I’ll stick to my dirt and organic nukes haven’t had much time into it but if I’m doing this good this fast. Now I need to tweak their environment and people will think I’ve been growing all my life. Just need a little help with the lighting

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